Plastering is done to achieve the following objects To protect the external surfaces against penetration of rain water and other atmospheric agencies To give smooth surface in which dust and dirt cannot lodge To give decorative effect To protect surfaces against vermin. To conceal inferior materials or defective workmanship Objects of platering :
Requirements of good plaster: :
It should adhere to the background and should remain adhered during all variations of the climatic changes. It should be cheap and economical It should be hard and durable. It should be possible to apply it during all weather conditions It should be effectively check the entry or penetration of moisture from the surface It should possess good workability Requirements of good plaster:
Types of Plaster 1. Sand faced plaste:
The first coat of sand faced cement plaster is done with cement mortar in 1:4 with coarse sand after curing the plaster for seven days the second coat of cement plaster 1:3 ratio will be done on the first coat. Sponge is used in the second coat and it is applied when the second coat is wet, it is thus worked that the density of sand grain appear on surface is equal and uniform. The surface is kept well watered at least for 15 days. Types of Plaster 1. Sand faced plaste
2. Rough Cast Plaster :
This plaster is a mixture of sand and gravel in specified proportion dashed over a freshly plastered surface. The plaster base consists of two coats, under layer 12 mm thick and top layer 10 mm thick having the cement mortar ratio 1:3. In order to make the base more plastic, about 10% of hydrated lime by volume of cement shall be added while prepare mortar. 2. Rough Cast Plaster
3. Depeter Plaster: :
This is just another form of rough cast finish. The rendering coat of 12 mm thick is prepared as in case of pebbled dash finish. While this coat is wet, pieces of gravel are pressed with hand on the surface. Thus it is possible to have beautiful patterns and ornamental designs on the surface by selecting materials of different colors. 3. Depeter Plaster:
4.Pebbled dash plaster:
It is similar to rough cast finish except clean pebble of size from 6 mm to 12.5 mm are dashed against the surface so that there are laid in position by mortar applied already. 4.Pebbled dash plaster
5. Smooth cast plaster or plain face plaster:
This finish is just similar to sand faced finish except fine grained sand is used instead of coarse sand. No sponging is done to expose the sand grain . It is normally done on internal walls. 5 . Smooth cast plaster or plain face plaster
Defects in Plaster:
The following defects may arise in plaster work. Blistering of plastered surface: This is the formation of small patches of plaster swelling out beyond the plastered surface, arising out of late slaking of lime particles in the plaster. Defects in Plaster
Cracking consists of formation of cracks or fissures in the plaster work resulting from the following reasons. Imperfect preparation of background Structural defects in building Discontinuity of surface Movements in the background due to its thermal expansion or rapid drying Movements in the plaster surface itself, either due to expansion or shrinkage. Excessive shrinkage due to application of thick coat Faulty workmanship. Cracking:
It is the whitish crystalline substance which appears on the surface due to presence of salts in plaster making materials as well as building materials like bricks, sand, cement etc and even water. This gives a very bad appearance. It affects the adhesion of paint with wall surface. Efflorescence can be removed to some extent by dry bushing and washing the surface repeatedly. Efflorescene
Flaking : It is the formation of very loose mass of plastered surface, due to poor bond between successive coats . Peeling: It is the complete dislocation of some portion of plastered surface, resulting in the formation of a patch. This also results from imperfect bond.
Popping: It is the formation of conical hole in the plastered surface due to presence of some particles which expand on setting Rust Stains: These are sometimes formed when plaster is applied on metal laths Uneven surface: This is obtained purely due to poor workman ship.
Finishing of mortar joints in masonry. In exposed masonry joints are weakest parts. Pointing consists of raking of joints to a depth of 10 to 20 mm. Pointing
Types of pointings 1. Flush Pointing:
Types of pointings 1. Flush Pointing
Flush pointing The pointing may be level as in flush pointing, which is made by wiping over the finished pointing with the trowel or piece of rough cloth. Does not give good appearance. But it is durable as it does not provide any space for accumulation of dust, water etc
2. Keyed or grooved pointing:
2. Keyed or grooved pointing
In this type mortar is first up flush with the face if wall. A semi circular notch is formed by a tool know as pointer. This type of pointing gives as attractive appearance to the surface. This type is mostly used for superior type work, particularly for vertical joints of walls.
Recessed joints are not suitable for buildings in exposed situations because they do not readily shed water. This is done by pressing mortar back from edges by 5 mm or more. Face of pointing is kept vertical. Only bricks with good frost resistance should be used with recessed joints. Gives good appearance.
4. Weathered Pointing:
4. Weathered Pointing V’ shaped projections are made.
5. V pointing or bucket handle :
Formed by forming a ‘V’ groove. 5. V pointing or bucket handle
6. Beaded pointing:
Formed by steel or iron edge. Gives food appearance but liable to damage easily. 6. Beaded pointing
7. Tuck pointing :
7. Tuck pointing
Groove of 5 mm width and 3 mm depth is prepared. It is filled with white cement or putty.
8. Struck pointing :
8. Struck pointing
Face of pointing is kept inclined Upper edge pressed inside face by 10 mm